Neurons and the synapse between them first defined in 1897, but not how work

How synapse's work became the Soups/Sparks Controversy

Recent science shows a Glial astrocyte is part of every synaptical event


The brain has high energy requirements. About 20% of the oxygen and 25% of the glucose consumed by the human body are dedicated to cerebral functions, yet the brain represents only 2% of the total body mass. Maintenance and restoration of ion gradients dissipated by signaling processes such as postsynaptic and action potentials, as well as uptake and recycling of neurotransmitters, are the main processes contributing to the high brain energy needs....doing things that create epiphenomena rhythms in the brain

Using music as a metaphor

Tempo of note = Frequency
Volume/pitch = Amplitude
Rhythm = Pattern of regular or irregular frequencies
Phase = a state of parallel oscillations (synchronization)
Harmony = Frequencies In Phase
= Connectivity everywhere to everywhere

Bass Baratone Tenor Saprano Mezzo-Saprano

Delta Theta Alpha Beta Gamma

The bio-electric signals/rhythms produced by our brain/nervous systems are measured at different locations on the head by their frequency in micro Hertz (mHz) and range from something above zero...grin (current technical limit is 0.005 mHz) to over 100 mHz

The synchronous activity of neurons and astrocytes in conjunction with subcortical nuclei (Thalmus, Hippocampus, Septum, Insula, ???) create/maintain complex electrical signals/wave forms that produce rhythms across various rhythms simultaneously and on an ongoing basis, even when we are sleeping or in a coma/sedated.